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Falanqaynta Dagaalada Sokeeye ee Joogtada ah ee Suudaan, Afgembiyada joogtada ah, iyo Saamaynteeda

koobid: Dagaalka Sokeeyaha ee Suudaan oo bishi afaraad 2023 and hadana wali socdo ayaa wuxuu Samyn ku yeeshtay malaayiin Suudaaniyiin ah iyagoo u qaxaya waddamada deriska la ah Sudan, oo ay ku jiraan Chad, Koonfurta Suudaan, iyo Masar. Dagaalkan hubaysan ayaa ka dhashay loollan awooded oo u dhexeeyay laba xisbi oo mucaarid ah oo mar wada hogaaminayay afgambigii hore. Hadane, xiisada udhaxeeysa labada xisbi ayaa cirka isku sii shareertay, waxayna labada dhinac isku raceen in ay xoog ku helaan dalka xoog. Waxaa muhim ah in si fahan iyo falanqay ku jirto loo xisabiyo taariikhda Sudan ee afgambiga ah iyo dagaalada sokeeye si loo fahmo dagaalka sokeeye ee hada tagan.


Dulmarid

Suudaan waxay ku taala Waqooyi Bari Afrika, juquraafi ahaana Masar aya waqooyi ka xigta, Chadna galbeedka, Eritreana waqooyi-bari, Itoobiyana koonfur-bari, Jamhuuriyadda Bartamaha Afrikana ah koonfur-galbeed, Koonfurta Suudaan oo dhanka koonfur ka Xigta, iyo Liibiya oo dhanka Waqooyi Galbeed ka xigta. Waxay ka kooban tahay qabiilo iyo qowmiyado kala duwan, oo ay ku jiraan qowmiyadaha Carabta iyo kuwa aan Carabta ahayn. Intii u dhaxaysay 1899 iyo 1956, Ingiriiska iyo Masar ayaa gumaystay Suudaan. Masar waxay ka go’day heshiiskii ki ahaa Condominium Agreement 1899-kii, oo ahaa xukun Ingrisi-Masar ah oo Suudaan ay kaga talinaysay ilaa 1951-kii, taasoo keentay in cod doorasho lasiiyoo Sudaaniyiinta oo ahayd kala doorashada madaxbannaanida ama midowga Masar. Xisbigii ugu horreeyay ee guulaysta ee talada qatay waxa uu ahaa xisbiga National Unionist Party (NUP), oo Ra'iisul Wasaare Ismail al-Azhari hogaamiyay, doorashadii baarlamaanka 1953-kii. Suudaan waxay xornimadeeda qaadatay Janaayo 1, 1956.


Suudaan wajigeeda koowaad ee madax-bannaanideeda

Suudaan, ka dib markii ay ku dhawaaqday madaxbannaanida, waxay la tacaashay dawlad dabacsan. Ra'iisul wasaare Ismaaciil al-Azhari ayaa xilka hayay muddo kooban, wuxuuna xilka iska casilay bishii Luulyo 1956; Dawladdu waxay u gudubtay xisbi kale oo la odhan jiray Umma Party (UP) ama Xisbigii Ummada, halkaas oo afgambigii ugu horreeyay ee ay Milatarigu hoggaamiyaan ay xukunka ka tuureen 1958-kii oo uu hoggaaminayay Lt. General Ibrahim Abboud oo ka tirsana Five-member Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). Dawladdu waxay ku soo baxday Dimuqraadiga Jamhuuriyadda Suudaan November 18, 1958. Dawladdii militariga ahayd waxay tuurtay dastuurkii, waxayna ku dhawaaqday inay dalku degdeg ku jiro, waxayna mamnuucday xisbiyo siyaasadeed, waxayna ugu dambeys kala dirtay SCARF 26-kii Oktoobar, 1964-kii. Dowladdii Lt. General Ibrahim Abboud, Suudaan waxa ay la kulantay cabudhinta xorriyadda hadalka. Xaaladda dowladda ayaa noqotay mid u nugul jabhado ka imaanaya dad rayid ah oo kala duwan, oo ay ku jiraan ciidamo milateri, arday iyo qowmiyado kala duwan oo ka soo horjeeda dowladda milateriga. Dawladdu waxay ku xallisay mudaaharaadyadii xoog ciidan ah, so loo gaadho xukun iyo kala dambayn. Dawladdii millatariga ayaa waxay markasta u diyaar ahaayd in ay jabiso cid kasta oo mucaarad. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, dawladdii milaterigu waxay awooddeedii ku wayday isbahaysigii ay rayidka hoggaaminayeen ee Serkhatim Khalifah sannadkii 1964kii.


Muddadii u dhaxaysay 1964-1989

Waxa jiray xukun dawladeed oo aan degganayn intii u dhaxaysay 1964 ilaa 1989kii. Go’aamadii Xisbiga UP iyo Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) ama Xisbiga Dimuqraadiga Midnimada ayaa sii waday inay u tartamaan dowladnimada. Muddadan waxaa lagu asteeyay qalalaase siyaasadeed maadaama ay jireen afgambiyo badan oo fashilmay. Dawladdu waxay u dhaxaysay UP iyo DUP, labaduba waxay dalka hogaaminayeen muddo kooban ilaa afgambi militari ay xukunka kaga tuureen dowladii Maxamed Axmed Maxjuub ee Xisbiga Ummada 1969kii. Afgambigii millatari ee uu hoggaaminayey Kornayl Gaafar Muxammad al-Numaryi oo ka tirsanaa Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), ama Golaha Hoggaanka Kacaanka ee tobanka xubnood ka kooban, ayaa cabudhiyey mudaaharaadyo badan, waxayna laayen mucaarad iyo jabhado. Inqilaab iyo jabhado ciidan ayaa marar badan soo wajahay dowladii al-Numaryi, qalalaase siyaasadeedna wuu baahay. Midowgii Soofiyeeti waxa uu kaalmo ciidan siin jiray dawladdii. Dowladda Suudaan ayaa heshiis difaac oo wadajir ah oo 25 sano ah la saxiixday Masar 15-kii July, 1976-kii. (Ronen, 2003). Ka dib markii uu wax yar ku guuleystay doorashadii 1983kii, Colonel Gaafar Muhammad al-Numaryi ayaa xilka afgambi militari looga tuuray1985-kii. Difaacii wadajirka ee 25-sano ee 1974 iyo RCC waa la soo afjaray. Doorashadii 1986-kii, waxaa ku guuleystay Xisbiga Ummada, Sadiiq al-Mahdi waxaa loo magacaabay Ra'iisul Wasaare ilaa uu sidoo kale kala diray dowladdii March 11, 1989. (UCA)


Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-bashiir (1989-2000)

General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashiir ayaa hogaaminayay afgambiyo militari oo ay taageerayaan xisbiga National Islamic Front (NIF) ee Sudan June 30, 1989. Waxa uu ku hogaamiyay dawladii hoos timaada Golaha Hoggaanka Kacaanka (RCC) isaga oo ra'iisul wasaare ah, ku dhawaaqay xaalad degdeg ah, babi'iyay dastuurkii 1985, hadane mamnuucay xisbiyada siyaasadda 1989. NIF waxay rabeen inay Suudaan ka hirgeliyaan dawlad Islaami ah, iyagoo iska indha tiray diimaha iyo dhaqamada kala duwan ee Suudaan. Habka ay u dhaqangeliso hal luqad iyo hal diin Ayay Suudaan fulaysay, lakin koonfurta Suudaan (hadda dalka Koonfurta Suudaan) ma aysan soo dhaweyn maadaama, waagaas, ay jireen Masiixiyiin u badan dhanka konfurta. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, dawladdu waxay sii waday fulinta shuruucda Islaamka, iyada oo ka dhigtay diinta kaliya ee Suudaan Islaamka iyo luqadda kaliya ee Suudaaan Carabiga. Jeneraal Cumar Xasan Axmad Al-Bashiir waxa uu adeegsaday cudud ciidan si uu ula dagaallamo jabhadaha militariga iyo dibadbaxayaasha, waxaana uu dil toogasho ah ku fuliyay dad ka soo horjeeday siyaasadda oo ka qeyb qaatay jabhado milateri. Cabudhinta xooggan ee lagu hayo dibadbaxayaasha iyo dilalka rayidka ayaa sii socday oo ugu dambeyntii soo jiitay indhaha bulshada caalamka.

Dowladda ayaa lagu eedeeyay xadgudubyo ka dhan ah xuquuqul insaanka oo ay u geysteen dad shacab ah. Sidaas darteed Human Rights Watch iyo Amnesty International ayaa cambaareeyay sida ay dowladdu ula dhaqanto fallaagada iyo dibadbaxayaasha ardayda ee xarumaha kulliyadaha. (UCA). Dawladdu waxay aasaastay National Security Arrest (NSA) ama Xariga Amniga Qaranka ee 1995, kaas oo ay si rasmi ah u mamnuucday xorriyadda hadalka iyada oo ay adeegsanayso magaca amni xoojin, sharciga iyo kala dambeynta, taas oo keentay in dad rayid ah la xidho sababo aan ku xirnaayn amni, sharci iyo kala dambeeyn. NSA waxay u hirgashay dawladda si ballaadhan iyadoo dawldadii xidhxidhaysa cid kasta oo ka soo horjeeda dowlada; tusaale ahaan, dawladdu waxay xidhay dad si aan kala sooc lahayn uga soo horjeeday sida ra'iisul wasaarihii hore ee Xisbiga Ummada, Sadiiq al-Mahdi, sababo la xiriira dhaleeceynta dowladda iyo NIF. (HRW, 1996). Bashiir wuxuu u nugul ahaay eedeymaha ku saabsan xadgudubyada xuquuqda aadanaha. Maraykanku waxa uu cunaqabatayn dhaqaale ku soo rogay dawladda 1997kii.  Call of the Homeland Accord, Baaq Heshiiska Dalka, oo uu dhexdhexaadiyey Madaxweynaha Jamhuuriyadda Jabuuti, Ismaaciil Cumar Gelle, oo ahaa heshiis afar sano ah oo loogu guurayo dawlad dimuqraadi ah, ayaa la rabay in lagu dimuqraadiyeeyo dowladda. Muddadii kala guurka ahayd waxa soo maray qalalaase siyaasadeed, mar kale, Xisbiga National Congress Party ayaa ku guulaystay doorashadii ee 2000kii, taas oo keentay in Madaxweyne Cumar Xasan Axmad Al-Bashiir dib loo doorto December 22, 2000.




Intii uu socday iskahorimaadka Darfur, xisbiga reer galbeedka waxaa inta badan ku dagaalamayey ciidamada dowladda iyo fallaagada.
Intii uu socday iskahorimaadka Darfur, qaybta galbeed ee Darfur waxaa inta badan ku dagaalamay ciidamada dowladda iyo jabhadaha
Qalalaasihii ka dhacay Gobolka Darfur 2003-2010

 Horraantii 2000-meeyadii, rabshaduhu waxay ahaayeen kuwo laga naxo, gaar ahaan gobolka Darfur. Sannadkii 2003dii, Sudan Liberation Movement/Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/SLA), ama Dhaqdhaqaaqa Xoraynta Suudaan/Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/SLA, jabhado iyo xisbiyada mucaaradka ayaa bilaabay inay weeraraan ciidamada milateriga ee Waqooyiga Darfur Abriil 25, 2003. Dawladdu waxay abaabushay olole ciidan oo aargoosi ah, waxayna shaqaalaysiisay koox maleeshiyo ah oo xag-jir ah oo loo yaqaanno kooxda Janjaweed si ay u fuliyaan kacdoon-damin. Boqolaal qof ayaa ku dhintay, malaayiin kalena waa ay ku barakaceen intii uu socday dagaalka. Maleeshiyada Janjaweed oo ah ciidan ay dowladdu taageerto oo aad u hubeysnaa inkastoo aysan haysan tababar ciidan oo aasaasi ah, waxay la dagaalameen SLM/SLA iyo dad aad u tiro badan oo aan Carab ahayn oo degan Darfur, iyagoo dambiyo ka dhan ah bini’aadantinimada ka geystay markii ay boqolaal qof oo aan waxba galabsan ku dileen Darfur. Maleeshiyada ayaa isticmaashay "scorched earth Campaign burning villages and poisoning wells" ama Ololaha dhulka la gubaay, tuulooyinka iyo ceelasha sunta(Astoundz, 2023). 2003-2004 waxay calaamad u ahayd Xasuuqii Darfur, sida uu dhigayo United Nations Genocide Convention ama Heshiiska Xasuuqa ee Qaramada Midoobay oo loo aqoonsaday in ku dhawaad 400,000 oo qof la dilay, haweenka la kufsaday, malaayiin qofna la barakiciyay. (Astoundz, 2023). Dagaal xooggan ayaa ka dhacay Darfur, faragelin caalami ahna lama huraan ay tahay ayaa African Union, Midowga Afrika, aasaasay

African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS I) iyo Ceasefire Monitoring Commission (CMC), si loo hubiyo bixinta gargaarka bini'aadantinimo iyo la socodka a xabad joojin gobolka Darfur. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, wada-xaajoodyo badan oo xabbad-joojin ah ayaa fashilmay, waxaana dib u billowday dagaalkii, taasoo sii xoojisay xaaladaha dhibaatooyinka bini'aadantinimo ee jira. Golaha Ammaanka ee Qaramada Midoobay ayaa cunaqabateyn militari ku soo rogay dowladda Suudaan iyadoo jawaab oo ga dhigeeyso dayacaadda dowladda ilaalinteeds dadka ku nool Darfur, waxaana la sameeyay AMIS II kale. AMIS II waxaa ka mid ahaa ilaalinta heshiisyada xabbad joojinta. Heshiisyo nabadeed oo dhowr ah ayaa fashilmay, wada xaajoodyo, iyo heshiisyo xabbad-joojin ah, oo uu ku jiro heshiiskii nabadda ee Darfur ee ay dhexdhexaadiyeen Midowga Afrika ee u dhexeeya dawladda Suudaan iyo SLM bishii Maajo 2006, si weyn ayey u saameysay gobolka markii uu dib ugu noqday xaaladii hore mid ka sii darneyd, sida rabshado baahsan. Dhowr xabad joojin iyo heshiisyo nabadeed oo ay dhexdhexaadinaysay Eritrea ayaa fashilmay, waxaana sii socday iska horimaadyada rabshadaha wata ee rayidka iyo dowladda. African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), Hawlgalka Is-dhafka ah ee Midowga Afrika/Qaramada Midoobay ee Darfur waxa la sameeyay July 31, 2007. Midowga Afrika iyo Qaramada Midoobay waxay iskula safteen inay ka hawlgalaan xasilloonida Darfur ciidan ahaan iyo inay gargaar bini'aadantinimo siiyaan Darfur. Dembiyada militariga ee dowladda, iska hor imaadka ay la galeen dibadbaxayaasha iyo jabhadaha, ayaa sii socday. Ciidamada dowladda ayaa rabshado ka dhan ah barakacayaasha, weerar ku qaaday tuulooyinka iyo xeryaha qaxootiga sida xerada Kalma, halkaasoo ciidamada dowladda ay ku dileen in ka badan sodon qof 25-kii Agoosto, 2008, magaalada Darfur. (ReliefWeb, 2008). Dawladdu waxay xaddidday gargaarka bini'aadantinimo iyo shaqaalaha gargaarka inay galaan xerada Kalma. Maxkamadda caalamiga ah ee dambiyada ayaa soo saartay amar lagu soo xirayo madaxweyne Cumar Xasan Axmad al-Bashiir oo lagu eedeeyay inuu galay dambiyo dagaal, xasuuq, iyo dambiyo ka dhan ah bini’aadantinimada bishii March 2009-kii. Xisaabaadka ayaa ahaa: 


five counts of crimes against humanity: murder – article 7(1)(a); extermination – article 7(1)(b); forcible transfer – article 7(1)(d);torture – article 7(1)(f); and rape – article 7(1)(g);

two counts of war crimes: intentionally directing attacks against a civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities – article 8(2)(e)(i); and pillaging – article 8(2)(e)(v). (ICC, 2009)


shan dacwadood oo ka dhan ah bini'aadminimada: dil – qodobka 7(1)(a); baabi'inta – qodobka 7(1)(b); wareejinta qasabka ah – qodobka 7(1)(d);jirdilka – qodobka 7(1)(f); iyo kufsiga – qodobka 7(1)(g);

laba dacwadood oo dambiyo dagaal ah: si ula kac ah u hagaya weerarrada ka dhanka ah dadka rayidka ah sida ama ka dhanka ah shakhsiyaadka rayidka ah ee aan si toos ah uga qayb qaadan colaadaha – qodobka 8(2)(e)(i); iyo tuuganimada – qodobka 8(2)(e)(v). (ICC, 2009)



Sharciga Caalamiga ah ee Xuquuqul Insaanka iyo Xadgudubyada Sharciga Bani'aadamnimada

Madaxweyne Cumar Al-Bashiir ayaa Suudaan xukumayay soddon sano. Soddonkaas sano waxaa lagu asteeyay xasillooni darro siyaasadeed oo weyn, dagaallo sokeeye, iyo xad-gudubyo ka dhan ah xuquuqda aadanaha oo ka dhan ah dadka Darfur. Waxa uu dalka ku hogaamiyay kaligii taliye, waxa uuna dhaqan galiyay shuruuc iyo siyaasado lagu takoorayo qabiilada and qowmiyadaha qaar ee Suudaan. Madaxweyne Cumar Al-Bashiir ayaa ku gacan seyray eedeymaha loo soo jeediyay ee ku saabsan xadgudubyada ka dhanka ah xuquuqul insaanka, isagoo dalka ku maamulay ciqaab la’aan. Human Rights Watch iyo Amnesty International ayaa marar badan cambaareeyay dowladda Suudaan. Dowladda Suudaan ayaa xadgudubyo ka dhan ah sharciga xuquuqul insaanka ku sameysay dadka ku nool Darfur dhowr jeer. Sharciga xuquuqul insaanka wuxuu ilaaliyaa sharafta shaqsiyaadka iyadoon loo eegayn isir, diin, qowmiyad, ama jinsi. Sharciyada dagaalku waxay mudnaan siiyaan ilaalinta rayidka iyo walxaha rayidka leeyihiin, oo ay ku jiraan isbitaallada, dugsiyada, iyo guryaha. Sharciga caalamiga ah ee bini'aadantinimada "minimizes unnecessary pain and suffering during wartime, particularly by protecting civilians and other noncombatants from the hazards of armed conflict" (HRW, 2023). Oo ah yaraynta xanuunka iyo silica aan loo baahnayn inta lagu jiro dagaalka, gaar ahaan isagoo ka ilaalinaya rayidka iyo kuwa kale ee aan dagaalka ahayn khataraha iskahorimaadyada hubaysan. Dhinac kasta, dagaalka sokeeye waxa uu baabi’iyay heshiisyadii xabbad joojinta, wada xaajoodyadii, iyo heshiisyadii nabadeed, taas oo dadka rayidka u horseeday dhibaato aan loo baahnayn.


Dhacdooyinka 2010-2019

Ciidamada dowladda iyo Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N, Dhaqdhaqaaqa Xoreynta Shacabka Suudaan-Waqooyi, ayaa isku mar ku dagaalamay Koonfurta Kordofan. Iska horimaadka dhexmaray ciidamada dowladda iyo SPLM-N iyo arday mudaaharaadayay ayaa ahaa mid aad u baahsan oo arxan darro ah, taasoo muujineysa qalalaase siyaasadeed iyo in dowladdu ay awood u adeegsato Jabhadaha. 2019, afgambi militari oo uu hogaaminayay Lt. General Axmed Cawad Ibnu Aud ayaa afgambiyay dowladdii Madaxweyne Cumar Al-Bashiir. Dalku waxa uu galay isbedel dimuqraadi ah oo uu hogaaminayay Lt. General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan oo ka tirsan Transitional Military Council oo ahaa golaha militariga ku meel gaarka ah. Hawlgalka UNAMID ayaa lasso afjaray Disembar 31, 2020. Degenaansho la'aanta ayaa kor u kacday, Qaramada Midoobayna waxay aasaastay United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS), Hawlgalka Kaalmada isku-guurinta kumeel gaar ka ah ee Qaramada Midoobay ee Suudaan (UNITAMS) Juun 3, 2020. UNITAMS waxay ahayd hawl siyaasadeed oo gaar ah si loo xaqiijiyo u gudubka dawlad dimuqraadi ah iyadoo Suudaan taageero ka heleysa Qaramada Midoobay muddo afar sano ah. (ReliefWeb, 2023)



General Abdel Fattah Burhan (Bidix), hogaamiyaha SAF iyo General Mohammed Dagalo oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan Hamedti (midig), Hogaamiyaha RSF.  (Myre, 2023).
General Abdel Fattah Burhan (Bidix), hogaamiyaha SAF iyo General Mohammed Dagalo oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan Hamedti (midig), Hogaamiyaha RSF. (Myre, 2023).

Dagaalka Sokeeye ee Suudaan ee hadda socda

General Abdel Fattah Burhan iyo General Mohammed Dagalo, oo sidoo kale loo yaqaan Hamedti, waxay ahaayeen saaxiibo waqti dheer ah ilaa 2021, markay labadooduba ay u tartamayeen xukunka. Waxay ka qaybqaateen colaadda gobolka Darfur sannadkii 2003-dii, waxayna labaduba ku lug lahaayeen dawladda iyo kooxda Janjaweed ee dagaalka kula jirta SPLM-N iyo JEM, Dhaqdhaqaaqa Caddaaladda Sinnaanta. Maxamed Dagalo (Xamedti) waxa uu ahaa taliyihii maleeshiyada Janjaweed ee ka geystay dhibaatooyin fara badan gobolka Darfur sannadihii 2003-2004. Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) ama Ciidamada Hubaysan ee Suudaan (SAF) oo uu hoggaamiyo Jeneral Abdel Fattah Burhaan, ayaa dowladda ku afgambiyay afgambi militari sanadkii 2021-kii. Xisbiga mucaaradka ah ee Rapid Support Forces (RSF, Ciidamada Taageerada Degdega, ee uu hogaamiyo Hamedti ayaa dalbaday awood dheeri ah oo uu ku qabsanayo Khartoum. Ku guuldareysiga labada xisbi isku dar kooda ayaa horseeday in uu qarxo dagaalka sokeeye, taas oo keentay in malaayiin qof ku khasbanaadaan in ay ka baxaan guryahooda. Bishii Abriil 2023, RSF waxay guulo ka soo hoysay gobolka Darfur, laakiin waxaa lagu eedeeyay inay geysteen falal xasuuq ah, oo ay ku jiraan isir sifeynta dadka aan Carabta ahayn iyo inay geysteen xadgudubyo kufsi oo ka dhan ah haweenka. RSF ayaa lagu eedeeyay in ay geysatay kufsi oo ka dhan ah haweenka iyo gabdhaha Galbeedka Darfur, taas oo Human Rights Watch ay ku sheegtay 78 dhibanayaal kufsi ah intii u dhaxaysay Abriil 24 iyo Juun 26, 2023. (HRW, 2023). RSF ayaa bishii Nofembar 2023 ka fulisay magaalada Ardama ee galbeedka Darfur isir sifeyn, iyadoo bartilmaameedsatay qabiilka Masalit, kaasoo ku xad-gudbay sharciga caalamiga ah ee xuquuqul insaanka iyo sharciga caalamiga ah ee bini'aadantinimada.

Tan iyo bilowgii dagaalka sokeeye, in ka badan 10,000 oo qof ayaa ku dhintay, in ka badan toddobo milyan oo qofna waxay ku barokaceen gudaha iyo dibadda dalka. (Sen, 2023). Israsaasayn xisbiyada dagaalamaya ayaa dadka rayidka ee ku nool Suudaan wajahinaya xaalado aad u xun oo ay ka jiraan cudurro ay ka mid yihiin jadeecada iyo daacuunka. In ka badan 1,200 oo caruur ah oo da'doodu ka yar tahay shan sano ayaa u dhintay jadeeco iyo nafaqo darro ka dhacday gobolka Niilka cad. 13,000 ayaa wajahaya nafaqo darro xeeryaha oo ku yaal Chad. Caqabadaha badan ay dagalku sii adkeeyen ayaa ka hortagay gaarsiinta gargaarka bini'aadantinimada gobollada qaarkood sida Galbeedka Suudaan iyo Koonfurta Suudaan. SAF ayaa weeraro millatari ku qaaday magaalooyinka ay dadku ku badan yihiin sida Khartoum, kuwaas oo ku xad-gudbay shuruucda dagaalka oo ah weeraro aan loo meel dayin, kuwaas oo dhibaato aan loo baahnayn u geystay dad rayid ah.


Gabagabo

Tan iyo markii uu dalkaasi xornimada qaatay, Suudaan waxaa ka dhacay afgambiyo badan. Inqilaab iyo dagaallo sokeeye oo soo noqnoqday sannadihii la soo dhaafay, Suudaan weligeed may yeelan dawlad u adeegta danaha dadkeeda kala duwan. Colaadda hadda jirta ayaa ku lug leh dad mas'uulka ka ah caddaalad-darradii hore ee Darfur loo geestay iyo iyagoo wali u sii tartamaya awood dal xukumis taas oo aan weli danta ugu wanaagsan dadka Suudaan ugu jirin. Waa lama huraan in laga fogaado soo noqnoqoshada cadaalad darada taariikhiga ah iyo kuwa ka mas'uulka ah falalkan oo kale, sida ay sheegtay maxkamadda caalamiga ah ee dambiyada, waa in aan lagu aamini karin hoggaanka dalka. Sharciga aduunka ayaa ku tilmaamay dagaalka sokeeye ee Suudaan inuu yahay iskahorimaad hubeysan oo aan shisheeye ahayn, taas oo la macno ah in labada xisbi ee iska soo horjeeda aanay ahayn dawladdo, laakin sharciyada dagalka ah ay wali ku xisaabsantahay.









Tixraac


University of Central arkansas: UCA. Government Public Service and International Studies. (n.d.). https://uca.edu/politicalscience/home/research-projects/dadm-project/sub-saharan-africa-region/70-republic-of-sudan-1956-present/

Astoundz. (2023, August 3). Genocide in Darfur - Holocaust Museum Houston. Holocaust Museum Houston. https://hmh.org/library/research/genocide-in-darfur-guide/



Ronen, Y. (2003). Sudan and Egypt: The swing of the pendulum (1989–2001). Middle Eastern Studies, 39(3), 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200412331301687


ICC issues a warrant of arrest for Omar Al Bashir, President of Sudan. (n.d.). International Criminal Court. https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/icc-issues-warrant-arrest-omar-al-bashir-president-sudan


UN Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan. (2023, November 13). ReliefWeb. https://reliefweb.int/organization/unitams#:~:text=Updates-,Description,political%20transition%20to%20democratic%20rule.


ACCORD. (2022, August 22). Environment, Conflict and Peacebuilding: Addressing the Root Causes of Conflict in Darfur – ACCORD. https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/environment-conflict-and-peacebuilding-addressing-the-root-causes-of-conflict-in-darfur/


Myre, G. (2023, May 10). Why is Sudan so prone to civil war? NPR. https://www.npr.org/2023/05/09/1175155164/why-is-sudan-so-prone-to-civil-war



Civil war pushes Sudan to the brink of humanitarian disaster. (n.d.). United States Institute of Peace. https://www.usip.org/publications/2023/11/civil-war-pushes-sudan-brink-humanitarian-disaster



Questions and answers on Sudan and the laws of war. (2023, April 25). Human Rights Watchhttps://www.hrw.org/news/2023/04/25/questions-and-answers-sudan-and-laws-war#_Toc880734504


Darfur: Rapid support forces, allied militias rape dozens. (2023, August 21). Human Rights Watchhttps://www.hrw.org/news/2023/08/17/darfur-rapid-support-forces-allied-militias-rape-dozens

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